Why is it claimed that Africa is poor and underdeveloped because of european...

girlDog
girlDog

Why is it claimed that Africa is poor and underdeveloped because of european imperialism despite Ethopia for example never being colonized and only shortly occupied by Italians?

All urls found in this thread:
https://warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/medieval_england_twice/
https://www.heritage.org/index/heatmap
https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD?locations=ZG&view=chart&year_high_desc=false
http://www.usadf.gov/
Bidwell
Bidwell

Bad politically repressive rulers can fuck a countries own economic prospects just as much as European colonialism can.

LuckyDusty
LuckyDusty

@girlDog
america
canada
participating in the africa scramble
who the hell made this?

Garbage Can Lid
Garbage Can Lid

Ethiopia had to deal with communism.

@ZeroReborn
this guy does not understand anything
Diamonds were irrelevant unless you had means of cutting, selling, and consumers willing to purchase them

He ignores the fact that there are plenty of domesticated animals in Africa, specifically in the North.
However, the further South you go the fewer animals that are able to be domesticated. And the more dangerous ones begin to show up as well.
He seems to be under the absurd asumption that something such as the Zebra, who admittedly has a similar body to a horse, could possible be domesticated the same way as a horse. Which is not true.

There are also thousands of preserved weapons from Africa from the pre-colonial period.
The rest is just retarded as well.
As there are plenty of impressive settlements in pre-colonial Africa. Not a bunch of "mud-huts"
Hell, one of the most impressive engineering feats in all of history, the Walls of Benin, are from pre-colonial Africa.

Sir_Gallonhead
Sir_Gallonhead

@LuckyDusty
Did you forget Liberia? Huh, huh, huh

Gigastrength
Gigastrength

@Sir_Gallonhead
Liberia was a colony
US benefited from Liberia in some way

SniperGod
SniperGod

@girlDog
Because in some extent is actually true, by claiming that Africa is only poor because of European influence is just laughable.

VisualMaster
VisualMaster

@SniperGod
It's just an easy scape-goat for people who are not well-versed in history.

Of course the primary reason for why Africa is such a shithole is due to USA and USSR using it as a playground during the Cold War... But that's an incredibly complicated topic, even if you just go into one random country.

Even small countries like fucking Equatorial Guinea have such a complicated reason for as to why they are so bad off that you could easily write a book about it.

Booteefool
Booteefool

@girlDog
Why progressives just admit that Africa throughout most of it’s history was just a backwater shithole? Ffs, England in the 1300’s had a higher GDP per capita than most black countries today.

Soft_member
Soft_member

@Booteefool
*Why can’t

Snarelure
Snarelure

@Booteefool
What a load of tard you are
This is the actual numbers
Going off these actual numbers only CAR is lower than England.
If you go with 1348 number then it's still only; Dem. Rep. Congo, and CAR.

Even if you go with the 1700 number it's only; Togo, Comoros, Madagascar, Eritrea, Guinea, Mozambique, Malawi, Niger, Liberia, Burundi, Dem. Rep. Congo, and CAR.

None of these, not even the 1700 number, is even close to a majority of black countries

But enjoy your stormtard propaganda lad.

WebTool
WebTool

@girlDog
That isn't claimed by anyone who knows what they're talking about. There are elements of it that kind of follow that idea - things like colonial authorities not adequately preparing the locals to take over or the Rinderpest epidemic at the end of the 19th century that swept through the continent with a 90%+ mortality rate for cattle - but the problems in Africa have surprisingly recent roots.

Most postcolonial African countries in the '60s seemed to be doing very well. They had growth rates higher than much of East Asia (including China) and lots of foreign investment both from companies and things like the IMF and World Bank. Cases like the Congo stood out, but many colonies like Ghana were actually doing fairly well thanks to the amount of effort Britain put into preparing them. But when the oil crisis came around in the '70s, a lot of African economies were hit hard. Budgets fell apart, loans and investments weren't being repaid, and, rather than try to address the situation in a more stable way, foreign investors just cut off aid and investment while demanding money back (with interest). Debt spiraled, and with it corruption rose and governments fell apart. The Cold War only made this worse, as everyone would pledge allegiance to whatever side was willing to support them to either prop up a corrupt regime or overthrow an existing government.

Ethiopia around the same time had its own issues along a similar vein. A revolution in 1974 overthrew the imperial government and installed a marxist regime which immediately turned around and started infighting. Rebel groups popped up among pretty much every non-Amharic population, and the Somalis invaded. Though the Soviets and Cubans arrived just in time to save them, the Ethiopian economy had since collapsed and the Derg regime that was then in power used poverty as a weapon, only further hurting the country.

TechHater
TechHater

@Snarelure
DRC has a ~$1500 GDP per capita
huh that's actually pretty surprising

Spazyfool
Spazyfool

@Snarelure
In a paper entitled British Economic Growth 1270-1870 published by the University of Warwick’s Centre on Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE) the researchers find that living standards in medieval England were far above the “bare bones subsistence” experience of people in many of today’s poor countries.

The figure of $400 annually (as expressed in 1990 international dollars) is commonly is used as a measure of “bare bones subsistence” and was previously believed to be the average income in England in the middle ages.

However the University of Warwick led researchers found that English per capita incomes in the late Middle Ages were actually of the order of $1,000 (again as expressed in 1990 dollars). Even on the eve of the Black Death, which first struck in 1348/49, the researchers found per capita incomes in England of more than $800 using the same 1990 dollar measure. Their estimates for other European countries also suggest late medieval living standards well above $400.

This new figure of $1,000 is not only significantly higher than previous estimates for that period in England – it also indicates that on average medieval England was better off than some of the world’s poorest nations today including the following (again average annual income as expressed in 1990 dollars).

https://warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/medieval_england_twice/

Lunatick
Lunatick

@girlDog
Redpill me on Sankara. Was he just another excentric dictator or was he on the right track?

Lord_Tryzalot
Lord_Tryzalot

@Lunatick
Mugabe in the making.

iluvmen
iluvmen

@Lunatick
It's difficult to say because we only really have a brief period where he was in power.

He seemed to be genuinely aiming for the betterment of his people, going after not just "western" problems like corruption or neocolonial interests, but tackling lots of endemic cultural issues as well like female genital mutilation.

However, it's hard to say if that would have lasted. Communist regimes often have this habit of starting out looking like they've got tons of potential and they're working incredibly well, but that doesn't mean that they're going to work in the long run. In Sankara's case, it'd be interesting to see if the system could last long enough to be normalized, because a lot of what he was pushing for seemed to rely on an enthusiastic and active population. It very well could have gone the way of (parts of) the Great Leap Forward, where collectives went well until the novelty wore off any people stopped being so motivated.

Deadlyinx
Deadlyinx

@Lunatick
He was absolutely on the right track

Methnerd
Methnerd

@Spazyfool
Even still, that only leads to four countries being lower than England in the 1300's; Burundi, Liberia, CAR, and DRC.
This is using PPP as that is undoubtedly the same those researchers are using if they can upgrade the per capita by nearly 600

If you go with nominal
it's a bare majority ~.51% of black countries are lower.

Gabon and Botswana, 92% and ~93% black respectively, have per capita incomes (nominal) of 7x and 6x higher than England.

FastChef
FastChef

years of colonial rule
same as being temporarily occupied

do humanities gene pool a favor and off yourself OP

Fuzzy_Logic
Fuzzy_Logic

@girlDog
dunno but the book 'guns germs and steel' is a good place to start. boring af though.

TreeEater
TreeEater

@VisualMaster
you could easily write a book about it.
do it

AwesomeTucker
AwesomeTucker

@girlDog
Because retarded pseuds parrot whatever incoherent chomskyite bric a brac they picked up from school, news media, the Internet etc

Need_TLC
Need_TLC

@Fuzzy_Logic
I prefer Why Nations Fail. It made me doubt the geographic theory as the primary reason for a countrys economic progress.

Spazyfool
Spazyfool

Central and Eastern Europe got rich off of African wealth

MPmaster
MPmaster

@ZeroReborn
fuck off back to /pol/ dumb ass

Burnblaze
Burnblaze

Theyre trying their best, ok!!! ;_;

RumChicken
RumChicken

@girlDog
what is derg?

iluvmen
iluvmen

@girlDog
wypipo stole all our mud cookies

Sharpcharm
Sharpcharm

@Garbage Can Lid
most impressive engineering feats in all of history
walls of benin
BWAAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAH

Raving_Cute
Raving_Cute

it is true colonialism isn't to blame for everything but this does not mean black ppl r dum

Lord_Tryzalot
Lord_Tryzalot

@Sharpcharm
name 1 (one) impressive engineering feat of pre-christian nords

Poker_Star
Poker_Star

@Lord_Tryzalot
Any of the Viking Ships, which were among the best, and fastest ships to ever sail during that era. The vertical loom was also pretty great. Better than any other loom

StrangeWizard
StrangeWizard

@girlDog
Because it is filled with Africans. There has never been a sucuseful and prosperous state of majority African people. There have been sub par mediocre ones at best.

Prove me otherwise
(Inb4 we wuz kangz Egyptians)

Stupidasole
Stupidasole

@Lord_Tryzalot
Their ship design was very advanced , and there is evidence they even made it to North America before later European settlers.

Supergrass
Supergrass

@StrangeWizard
Botswana

https://www.heritage.org/index/heatmap

Soft_member
Soft_member

@girlDog
It's not just that, the issue with the "africa is poor solely because of colonialism" ignores the fact that africa in the XV century was already significantly poorer than europe.
Most of the economic difference between africa and europe is explained by technological differences between the two continents that existed 5 centuries ago.

Evil_kitten
Evil_kitten

@Spazyfool
implying the Soviets didn't milk the third world for all it's worth

takes2long
takes2long

@Snarelure

As much as it is good to have corrected him it doesn't really bode well for Africa to have a GDP comparable to pre-Industrial or early industrial England.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD?locations=ZG&view=chart&year_high_desc=false

Allowing for difference of 1990 vs 2016:

Burundi is 779
Liberia is 814
Niger is 988
Sierra Leone is 1479
Ethiopia is 1737
Uganda is 1823
Zimbabwe is 2031
Kenya is 3161

Meaning outside of Kenya they are comparable to 19th century spain, Sweden, India, Germany or italy. or 1700 England. In other words countries:
-Without electricity (excluding 2 decades at the end of the 19th century)
-limited telegraph communications
-limited railroads
-no automotion
-a century plus older factory technology if any existed
-Limitations of 19th century commerce, trade and finance

are either comparable to or slghtly ahead of around a quarter or more of Sub-Saharan states.

askme
askme

@girlDog
im unfamiliar with politics, but when people mention the destitution of africa it usually pertains to consistently high birth rates despite no available food or water sources, along with excessive cases of stds and child rape. I dont think anyone reasonable berates africa for being poor, but question why they continue to shoot themselves in the foot.

massdebater
massdebater

@girlDog
ignoring Spain, Moortugal and Latin America
I hate leftists so much

Inmate
Inmate

@massdebater
Meanwhile, that image suggests that countries like finland share blame

idontknow
idontknow

Could someone give me the quick rundown on this guy? I refuse to believe he actually got away with his cartoonish supervillainy

TalkBomber
TalkBomber

@Inmate
ignoring Finnish crimes against the Kangdomz
When will we start hanging revisionists?

eGremlin
eGremlin

@askme
Yup, Africans are bizarre breed of humans in that they keep on breeding like crazy and not doing anything to improve their lives, ever.

BunnyJinx
BunnyJinx

@takes2long
-Without electricity (excluding 2 decades at the end of the 19th century)
-limited telegraph communications
-limited railroads
-no automotion
-a century plus older factory technology if any existed
-Limitations of 19th century commerce, trade and finance

What?

Dreamworx
Dreamworx

@VisualMaster
It's just an easy scape-goat for people who are not well-versed in history.

You don't know how deep a lot of the colonial era issue are. Cameroon for example is having strife of it's Anglo/French split.
South Sudan+Sudan
Southern African colonial polices lead to a lot of those nations current issue.
Rwanda
Nigeria
Congo

Crazy_Nice
Crazy_Nice

@girlDog
I like this image, spain did nothing wrong

MPmaster
MPmaster

Is this accurate?

StrangeWizard
StrangeWizard

@WebTool
gud post (1 upvote :^) )

Stark_Naked
Stark_Naked

@MPmaster
Yes.

Also, it fails to take into account that despite talking shit about having empathy it's always the race realists talking about hanging every non-white in sight.

haveahappyday
haveahappyday

@iluvmen
Great Leap Forward, where collectives went well
Hi Mao

takes2long
takes2long

@girlDog
That image is misleading because Africa's resources weren't properly harnessed until the colonial period was officially over. The slave trade had a big impact but Africa hadn't actually been colonised at the time. The Americas, south Asia and southeast Asia were much more important, by the time Africa was colonised the european powers were already wealthier and more technologically advanced than the rest of the world.

askme
askme

@girlDog
Because otherwise one might think that niggers really are lazy and stupid.

But that doesn't fit the Leftist Agenda.

Playboyize
Playboyize

@askme
You do realize that Africa right now has some of the fastest growing economies in the world, right?

Also, that's not a leftist agenda. I'm conservative and don't think black people are inherently lazy or stupid.

Methnerd
Methnerd

1. The "wealth" of Africa was mostly untapped, unused.
2. After thousands of years Africa was nothing. Mud huts, bonfires, baboon-bashing, Bantus genociding Khoisan, enslaving each other.
3. Muslims were plundering Africa centuries before whitey
4. Africans "started" the enslavement of blacks to whites, by selling their slaves for firearms.
5. Africans need to shut the fuck up. Europe was fucked over by wars, plagues, invasions by Huns, Moors, Arabs, Turks and other Europeans like Vikings, Slavs, Goths, etc, The Black Death wiped almost half of them out, more wars - world wars - communist hells. No one gives a shit.

TreeEater
TreeEater

@Playboyize
You do realize that Africa right now has some of the fastest growing economies in the world, right?

Hurr what is western and chinese aid

Also, that's not a leftist agenda. I'm conservative and don't think black people are inherently lazy or stupid.

Cuckservatives and modern Leftists are the same cancer.

GoogleCat
GoogleCat

@ZeroReborn
/pol/tards used to attribute this quote to Darwin
How interesting

Skullbone
Skullbone

@Evil_kitten
Are you shitting me? The 3rd world milked the soviets for all it's worth. How many returns do you really think the USSR got from it's African ventures? As opposed to the trillions in aids the soviets wasted on them.

LuckyDusty
LuckyDusty

@Methnerd
stopped reading at
2. After thousands of years Africa was nothing. Mud huts, bonfires, baboon-bashing, Bantus genociding Khoisan, enslaving each other.

FFS the absolute state of Veeky Forums

ZeroReborn
ZeroReborn

@TreeEater
I don’t think you understand how foreign aid works.

whereismyname
whereismyname

@LuckyDusty
It's mostly poltards who are so deeply rooted in their prejudices that they don't bother to explore further. There is a a lot of history within Africa, even within the sub-Sahara. Perhaps not as sophisticated as that of Eurasia but it's still there and very much interesting.

VisualMaster
VisualMaster

@Stark_Naked
It especially pisses me off when they say they "only want white people to survive", then turn around and circlejerk over Nazis and Turner Diaries.

Sir_Gallonhead
Sir_Gallonhead

@takes2long
fun fact - mobile banking is actually really common in Kenya even among the literal mud-hut-tier tribesmen.

5mileys
5mileys

@haveahappyday
Probably could have phrased that better. Many collectives *looked* like they were working early on when everyone was super hyped about communism.

Emberburn
Emberburn

@Gigastrength
US benefited from Liberia in some way
A couple of niggers did leave for Liberia, losing them was a benefit if you ask me

TechHater
TechHater

Why did Africa never amount to shit?

Hey Zanguzemi! If you put this thing in the ground the gods will make small trees grow and we can eat the things that come from them
Shut up Mzango! How are we supposed to eat with no food?
Zanguzemi the food will come not now but away from now.
We need food now!
Yes the food will come in time
How will the food come?
The gods will
He can make food without hunting for it? Hes a witch!
I am sorry Mzango but you cant be doing that
Listen to me please!
*a nigger hits him with a rock*
Please stop! Sto-
*the entire tribe shows up out of nowhere and begins throwing rocks at him then beating him with sticks
What did I do?
*they dont answer they just keep torturing him until he dies hours later*

The next day
I am so hungry
Mzango said food come from ground maybe it be good idea
Mzango dead we dont need him!

Illusionz
Illusionz

@girlDog
cultural Marxism to make people more welcoming to immigrants by convincing them that theyre just like you and will totally assimilate and not turn your country into a shithole

Garbage Can Lid
Garbage Can Lid

Africa being shit part 2

Deep in the jungle of the Congo there was a tribe
Ubare is sick he has been cursed by the spirit!
Maybe we should go look for spirit juju in the forest
Thats stupid! Lets just eat him instead
He isnt dead yet if we heal him from the power of the the forest spirit Zanya he can help us out
I want to eat him!
I want to rips his arms off and consume his flesh!
I want to eat him!
Did someone say eat him?
*the rest of the tribe starts shouting like stupid children(niggers) at the one negro trying to use logic and reason*
Guys guys you are acting stupid we need to cure
*one tribesman then stabs him with spear*
He is bleeding! Eat him!
No no no stop stop AAAAAAAAHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!!!!!
*the tribe remains indifferent to his screams of agony as they dive their hands into his wound and try to yank his flesh and swallow it whole since humans literally are unable to chew up raw meat some tribe members try to chew a big chunk of flesh and choke to death and no one helps them*
Look Mzunba is dead too! We eat him next!

girlDog
girlDog

@Playboyize
You do realize that Africa right now has some of the fastest growing economies in the world, right?
that isn't saying much
theyre only worth is their natural resources and china is just draining them for it and paying them pennies on the dollar so they become the next india. their quality of life will still be shit but unlike india their iqs and testing scores will still be low and they will still have a disportionate level of violent crime

takes2long
takes2long

US
profiting off Africa
The USA has spent billions of dollars on aid to Africa for decades and has maintained a grand total of ZERO colonies on the continent. Hell we are probably the only nation on Earth that has a dedicated government organization for supporting Africa: The US African Development Foundation: http://www.usadf.gov/ which receives tens of millions of dollars in government money every year and whose sole mission statement is to jumpstart African community development by providing capital and funding to Africans. This is on top of all the general foreign aid we provide to a slew of African nations as part of our diplomatic relationships with them.

Frankly, America doesn't owe Africa shit.

iluvmen
iluvmen

African being shit part 3

Hey I saw Yaro fuck Nizembi!
Nizembi is my woman I will find Yaro and tear off his skin with my spear!
I didnt fuck her!
Yaro yo*starts shouting incomprehensible niggers gibberish*
I didnt fuck her it is a lie
Everyone believes you fucked her so its not a lie
No no no I didnt do it I did nothing at all
Shut up liar you will pay for this!
*the tribe is crowning around the the two*
BREAK HIS NECK!
CHEW OUT HIS EYEBALLS
LETS SET THE LOSER ON FIRE
*at this point none of the two can run away from the fight as the tribe will brutally kill them for not being entertainment*
Please I do not want to fight my best friend!
*a rock hits him in the head knocking him to the ground*
*the other black guy then pounces on him and starts kicking him the face then the tribe joins in on beating the shit out of him*

TreeEater
TreeEater

@TechHater
@Garbage Can Lid
@iluvmen

Your stories are amusing.

Burnblaze
Burnblaze

Europe and America are only superior to Africa because of colonialism
even though America did not maintain a colonial empire in Africa
also somehow pre-colonial Europe managed to completely subjugate Africa despite their armies being outnumbered 20:1 on the African continent
for some reason they were unable to repeat this process with very much success in places like China and Japan, but I'm sure it has nothing to do with the relative sophistication and advancement of those cultures

Burnblaze
Burnblaze

Sometime in 400 B.C

An african small tribe has crossed the Sahara and meet an alien world
What is this?
Look at those trees they are so big and have holes?
I think those are their mudhuts
What is that stuff one their skin?
I have no idea
What is that thing it looks like a zebra?
Do they not hunt for food?
* an egyptian spots them*
Hey guys NIGGERS ARE HERE!
*suddenly a bunch of egyptian guys on horses ride towards them*
I think they want to fight us
We will not lose!
*They get their asses beat and two of them get speared to death
GET OUT OF HERE YOU BLACK MONKEY!
The tribesmen then run away and recross the Sahara all the way back to their tribe at the border of south Sudan
When they arrive they tell their people of what they saw

YOU SAW WOMAN WITH BRIGHT SKIN AND DID NOT BRING ONE HERE!
WE SHOULD KILL YOU FOR THIS
OUR WOMEN ARE NOT PRETTY LIKE BRIGHT SKIN WOMEN!
My brothers my encounters with the bright ones has taught me we are living in the wrong way
We should try to make trees grow from the ground like them and also make the zebra our slaves like them
Rather than these mudhuts lets use the rock to build our homes
WHAT?
Trees from the ground?
Are you stupid?
Zebra? Slave? ZEBRA IS FOOD STUPID!
I WANT A BRIGHT SKIN WOMAN NOW!
Relax my brothers in time we can one day conquer the bright skins and fuck all of their women but we must advance please we need to advance
I WANT TO FUCK BRIGHT SKIN WOMAN NOW!
Just fuck one of the girls in the hut over there dammit!
I WILL DO THAT!
Trees from ground? What nonsense!
WE HUNT FOR FOOD NO TREE FROM GROUND FOOD COMES FROM THE GODS NOT NO GROUND STUPID!!!
YOUR FUCKING STUPID!
YOUR A MORON!
WE SHOULD KILL HIM FOR DOING THIS!
YHHHHHHH!

5mileys
5mileys

@girlDog
Nice goalpost moving faggot.

listing the reasons for a phenomenon invalidates it

AwesomeTucker
AwesomeTucker

@TreeEater
Hurr what is western and chinese aid
China doesn't give aid, it opens businesses, and Western aid *harms* the local economies.

StrangeWizard
StrangeWizard

@Sir_Gallonhead
I like this tangent. There's a tribe in the Amazon which uses smartphones to catch illegal loggers.

w8t4u
w8t4u

@Raving_Cute
checked
Based

SniperGod
SniperGod

@5mileys
paying them pennies on the dollar

They are getting full price on it though.

but unlike india their iqs and testing scores will still be low and they will still have a disportionate level of violent crime

Lol you idiot do you know how SHIT the Gainsaid system of education is? their publvi schools are frail as fuck and even though they can produce uni graduates in the HS and elementary level there's a fuck ton of disparities. It's basically like America but 10x in that regard. India is all about extremes.

@AwesomeTucker
Western aid actually helps a lot of nations. Also everyone dumps their goods in poor nations including China.

GoogleCat
GoogleCat

@takes2long
Gov aid fora lot of organisations is basically "we'll give you 10 dollars and you'll give us 100 back". The amount of aid given is dwarfed by the money powers get from their actions on the continent.

Also the Cold War.

askme
askme

@ZeroReborn
go back to /pol/ you altfag

lostmypassword
lostmypassword

africa is literally the same as any island in the caribbean or any ghetto in america if there was no free government money or any government at all. everything is communal and handled by the local people. about a second world country, a little bit worse than south america

Playboyize
Playboyize

@lostmypassword
err. continent
second world continent lul
when it's so bad to be african that the entire continent is shit.
they should make it one country, they could maybe become a superpower eventually

BlogWobbles
BlogWobbles

@WebTool
They had growth rates higher than much of East Asia (including China) and lots of foreign investment both from companies and things like the IMF and World Bank.

That sounds doubtful to me, at least in any meaningful way. I see claims like this elsewhere. "Philippines was once the richest nation in Asia (including China)".

China in the 1960s was majorly laying the groundwork for massive infrastructure and human capital investment. The kind of thing that doesn't show up easily in cooked up GDP reports at the World Bank. No one wants to admit it though because it was under Mao and the Communists, and the the narrative is they couldn't possibly have done anything right. China just magically crapped itself into ascendant power being in the 90s. As if an extensive and competent education establishment, rail lines, healthcare, etc. just came from nowhere.

Was Africa doing the same or was investment money building a bridge and factory in a capital city for export? That's the sort of stuff the neoliberal establishment regards as "progress" and "growth". It's short term thinking.

Fried_Sushi
Fried_Sushi

@StrangeWizard
Ghana and Mali

TurtleCat
TurtleCat

@Fried_Sushi
A congregation of mud huts. Africans have nothing to their name. They never invented the wheel, a clock, or had writing before the white man came along.

JunkTop
JunkTop

People desperately dancing around the implications that Africans are inferior.

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